Berikut ini adalah rangkuman mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris II dengan dosen pengampu ibu Widya Karmilasari Achmad, S.Pd., M.Pd.
1. FUNCTIONAL WORD
A noun is a word that represents a person, a place, or a thing. A thing in this definition can be a physical entity or it can be an abstract idea. A noun may be used as a subject or as a object of a sentence.
# A noun as a subject
A noun as a subject can be in singular, plural, countable, or uncountable form. A noun called singular if the noun is just one and if the noun is more than one, it called plural. Generally, if singular be plural, we have to add “s” in end of the noun. The examples are :
- The girl is beautiful
- The books are very expensive
The girl is the subject of the first sentence and it formed singular because the girl is just one. The books is the subject of the second sentence and it formed plural because in end of the book is added “s” and it signified that the book is more than one.
A noun called countable if we can count it and it can show the quantity, like one, two, or three pens. Generally, the things around us are countable nouns, like cat, dog, man, baby, person, animal, bottle, box, coin, cup, plate, chair, bag, glass, book, house, etc. Whereas, a noun called uncountable if we can not count it, like water. We can not say that one water or two water but it more corretcly if use it with another countable nouns, the example is a glass of water. The example of countable nouns are sand, water, rice, sugar, coffee, tea, advice, fun, love, etc.
# A noun as a object
A noun as a object divided in two types, that is noun as direct object and noun as indirect object. Some examples of noun usage appear in the following sentences.
1. Noun as direct object
- ‘Ammar washed the car.
- The authorities commended Muqbil.
We can identify a direct object by asking what or whom. First sentence, ‘Ammar washed what? Answer: car. Car is the direct object of the verb washed. Second sentence, The authorities commended whom? Answer: Muqbil. Muqbil is the direct object of the verb commended.
2. Noun as indirect object
- I sent Maryam the camera.
- He bought the dog a kennel.
We can identify an indirect object by asking to what, for what, or to whom, for whom. First sentence, I sent the camera to whom? Answer: Maryam. Maryam is the indirect object. Second sentence, He bought a kennel for what? Answer: dog. Dog is the indirect object.
Adjective is a word that describes (qualifies) a noun or pronoun. Adjectives convey a sense of which, what kind, or how many or much.
Where do you put adjectives?
- Before the noun: I love pepperoni pizza. Adjectives are seldom placed directly after the noun.
- After the pronoun: When the indefinite pronouns something, someone, anybody,etc., are modified by an adjective, the adjective comes after the pronoun: Someone mean enough to kick a dog would also kick a child. Anyone decent would abhor that behavior. Something good will always come to those who have patience.
- After certain verbs: tobe, to become, to get, to seem, to look, to feel, to sound, to smell, to taste. Her skin feels soft.
What is the function of adjective?
Adjectives tell us more about a noun. They can :
- Describe feelings or qualities. The examples are he is a lonely man, they are honest people.
- Guve nationality or origin. The examples are Pierre is French, our house is victorian.
- Tell more about a thing’s characteristics. The examples are a wooden table, the knife is sharp.
- Tell us about age. The examples are he is a young man, my coat is very old.
- Tell us about size and measurement. The example is this is a very long film.
- Tell us about material or what something is made of. The example is it was a wooden table.
- Tell us about shape. The examples are a rectangular box, a square envelope.
- Express a judgement or a value. The examples are a fantastic film, English is fun.
There are the type of adjective :
1. Demonstrative Adjective
Demonstrative adjective is adjectives that point out which thing or person is indicated, like this, these, that, those.
a) This is used to point out singular thing near to the speaker. The example is this is an apple.
b) These is used to point out plural thing near to the speaker. The example is i know these girls.
c) That is used to point out singular thing far to the speaker. The example is that is your book.
d) Those is used to point out plural thing far to the speaker. The example is those stones are very heavy.
2. Distributive Adjective
Distributive adjective denote that the things or persons named are taken separately, singly or in separate lots. Adjectives of this class are each, every, neither, and either. But in this semester only two adjectives that already explained, each and every.
a) Each is specially one thing and it refers to the individual members. The example is each student has to participate.
b) Every can mean more than one thing and somewhat more general like. It refers to all members of group. The example is every group of students has to do an experiment.
3. Quantitative Adjective
Quantitative adjective is adjective that point out how much the thing that we mean.
a) Much and many
Much and many has same meaning that is “banyak”. Much is used only on countable nouns, whereas many is used only on uncountable nouns. When we use much or many in positive sentence, we have to add “too” before it.
- Luqman has too many trophies
- Dzulqarnain has not get many pens
- Abdurrahman has too much money in the bank
- Fauzan collected many sources for his paper
b) Few and little
Few and little has same meaning that is “sedikit”. Few is used only on countable nouns, whereas little is used only on uncountable nouns.
- Shofiyyah will be in Makassar for a few days
- When Khadijah was in college, there was little money to spare
c) Some and any
Some and any has same meaning that is “beberapa”. Some and any are used on countable nouns and uncountable nouns. But some is used in positive sentence, whereas any are used only in negative sentence and introgative sentence.
- Hafizhah has got some money
- I have some questions for you
- Do you have any pens?
- I do not have any advices for her
d) A lot of
A lot of is informal subtitutes for much and many. It is used with uncountable nouns when it means “much” and with countable nouns when it means “many”. It is used only in positive sentence and it happened in past.
- Masyithah has a lot of home works last week.
- Abdurrahman has a lot of money in the bank
2. WORD PARTS
There are many words in the English language. We will never know the meaning of every word in English. When we read, we often find many words that we do not know. We will not have enough time to stop reading and try to find every new word in dictionary.
Sometimes we can understand a new word because we know some of the parts of the new word. For example, if a word ends in the letters –er, that word might be the name for a person or thing that does a certain action, like writer, teacher, driver, listener, etc. Sometimes, it is not enough to know the parts of a new word to understand it, but it will help us many times.
- -er : a person or thing does a certain action.
Example : Mr. Luqman teaches English
He is an English teacher
- -ly : in the manner of; this word tells how
Example : Ali is a quick swimmer
He swims very quickly
- re- : do again
Example : Maryam has to write the letter again
She has to rewrite the letter
- in- : not; negative
Example : Her account was not active
It was inactive
- im- : not; negative. It uses before the letters b, m, and p
Example : He is not mature for his age
He is immature for his age
- il- : not; negative. It uses before the letter l
Example : The use of drugs is not legal
The use of drugs is illegal
- ir- : not; negative. It uses before the letter r
Example : He is a very not responsible young man
He is a very irresponsible young man
3. RELATIVE PRONOUN
A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause within a larger sentence. It is called relative pronoun because it relates to the word that it modifies. A relative pronoun links two caluses into single complex clause. To this extent, it is similiar in function to a subordinating conjunction. Unlike a conjunction, however, relative pronouns stands in plasce of a noun. Generally, there are two types of relative clauses: restrictive(defining) clause and non-restrictive(non-defining) clause.
1. Relative Pronouns in Restrictive Relative Clauses
Relative pronouns that introduce a restrictive relative clause ARE NOT separated from the main clause by a comma. Restrictive relative clauses (also known as defining relative clauses) add essential information about the antecedent in the main clause. The information is crucial for understanding the sentence’s meaning correctly and can not be omitted. In other words, without the restrictive relative clause, the sentence does not make sense.
2. Relative Pronouns in Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses
Although similar in use, relative pronouns that introduce a non-restrictive relative clauses ARE separated from the main clause by a comma (in most instances). Typically, which is the preferred relative pronoun for indicating that are lative clause is non-restrictive. Non-restrictive relative clauses (also known as non-defining relative clauses) provide non-essential information about the antecedent in the main clause. The information is not crucial for understanding the sentence’s meaning correctly and can be omitted without affecting the sentence’s meaning. In other words, non-restrictive relative clauses are an a side that add extra information.
“That” vs. “Who” and “Which”
The relative pronoun that can only be used in restrictive clauses. It can also be substituted for who(referring to persons) or which(referring to things) in informal English. Whereas that is often used while speaking, who and which are more common in formal written English.
- Conversational, Informal:
William Kellogg was the man that lived in the late 19th century and had some weird ideas about raising children.
- Written, Formal:
William Kellogg was the man who lived in the late 19th century and had some weird ideas about raising children.
- Conversational, Informal:
The café that sells the best coffee in town has recently been closed.
- Written, Formal:
The café, which sells the best coffee in town, has recently been closed.
Some Special Uses of Relative Pronouns in Restrictive Clauses
1. That / who
When referring to people, both that and who can be used in informal language.”That” may be used to refer to the characteristics or abilities of an individual or a group of people:
- He is the kind of person that/who will never let you down.
- I am looking for someone that/who could give me a ride to Chicago.
However, when speaking about a particular person in formal language, who is preferred:
- The old lady who lives next door is a teacher.
- The girl who wore a red dress attracted everybody’s attention at the party.
2. That / which
There are several cases when that is more appropriate than which:
a) After the pronouns “all”, “any(thing)”, “every(thing)”, “few,” “little”, “many”, “much”, “no(thing)”, “none”, “some(thing)”.
- The police usually ask foreverydetailthathelps identify the missing person.Dessert isallthathe wants.
b) After the noun modified by an adjective in the superlative degree:
- This is the best resource that I have ever read!
The table below sums up the use of relative pronouns in restrictive relative clauses and in non-restrictive relative clauses :
Who, whom, that, ∅
Which, that, ∅
Whose, of whom
Whose, of which
Whose, of whom
Whose, of which
Translation is the action of interpretation the meaning of the text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation that communicates the same message in another language. The process of translation as illustrated above can be explained as follows :
In this stage, the translator analyzes the text which is going to be translated, including the analysis of the grammatical relationship, the meaning of the words, and combination of words. The most important thing in this stage is to understand the content and the message in the original text.
The transferring stage happens in the mind of the translator. After understanding the idea and the content of the source text, the translator starts searching the equivalent words and thinking of the most approriate way to translate it into the target language. In this part, the translator has to convey the message and the meaning of the source language in such way that is has to be equivalent with the message and the meaning of target language.
The last stage in the process of translation is that the translator has to restructure the transferred material with good languge so that the translation is fully acceptable for the target reader. In order to get the best translation, the translator has to master the grammar, diction, and style of the target language.
In translating process, a translator usually comes across many problems which mainly relates to linguistic. There are several kinds of meaning that have to be understood by a translator. The following kinds of meaning may probably cause some problems for a translator in his process of translating.
a. Lexical meaning
lexical meaning is the meaning of the word as mentioned in dictionary, for example the adjective “dark” in the dictionary has four meanings, namely : gelap, tua, suram, dan hitam.
b. Grammatical meaning
Grammatical meaning means that a translator should comparehend the relation between elements of language in the larger units such as the relation between a word and another word within phrase or clause. The examples is the word “fly” as a noun it means “lalat”, while as a verb it means “terbang”
c. Contextual meaning
Contextual meaning means that each word has meaning related to its contex and situation as it is used in a sentence. The example is the verb “join” in the sentences :
- “Will you join us?” means “ikut serta dengan”
- “I join with the club” means “menjadi anggota”
- “The bridge joins the two islands” means “menghubungkan”
d. Pragmatical meaning
Pragmatical meaning is the meaning of the word that based on linguistic information such as vocabulary and syntax; and contextual meaning such as the role and status of speaker. The example:
A : Are the neighbors on vacation?
B : I have not seen their car all week.
In the dialog, response of the speaker B makes speaker A has to interpret it, because the speaker B not explicitly anwer question of speaker A with “yes, they are” or “yes, I think they are” like the answer of yes/no question commonly. But response of the speker B is undamaged communication between them, because at the explicit level what the speaker B hope from his answer, the speaker A can understand it. Because of that, the speaker A thinks that “of course, they are on vacation”.
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